Wednesday, May 20, 2020
The belief in something out of the universe is what helps most people continue on with their day. It may be hard for some to believe that they are only on this planet, living, just to die one day. Therefore, many turn to religion to seek a hope in an afterlife in which they can exist after death. However, believing in most religions means believing in something in charge of the universe. Something, or someone, that is practically supernatural, and supremely powerful. Thomas Nagel, in his text What Does It All Mean?, questions Ã¢â¬Å"Can there really be something which gives point to everything else by encompassing it, but which couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have, or need, any point itself?Ã¢â¬ (page 100). Nagel is referring to a creator, God, probing whether this all-powerful creator can be an Ã¢â¬Å"ultimate explanation,Ã¢â¬ but an Ã¢â¬Å"incomprehensible answerÃ¢â¬ (100). Two Greek philosophers, Descartes and Anselm, try to individually prove the existence of God as the most omnipotent being in the universe, but they differ in explaining their thoughts of reasoning. In understanding their logic, we must also question whether GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence is a valid explanation outside of their thoughts. Whereas Anselm bases God as Ã¢â¬Å"something than which nothing greater can be thought,Ã¢â¬ relying on purely a definition, Descartes uses his theory of innate ideas and principle of definite and clear perception as grounds for the existence of God. To Descartes, God must exist simply because of his idea of a supreme perfect being. ThoughShow MoreRelatedWhat Does It All Mean?2510 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesWhat Does It All Mean? Thomas Nagel presents various arguments regarding various philosophical questions namely, free will, how do we know anything, and what is the meaning of life? Nagel pointed out that the inside of your mind is the only place where one can be sure of oneself (Nagel 8). He also purports that anything ranging from the universe, human beings, physical structures like buildings and roads; even our own body is based on our experiences, thoughts and sensations (Nagel 11). WhetherRead MoreSo What Does It All Mean?1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesVideo #1 Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"So What Does It All Mean?Ã¢â¬ This video was particularly interesting re; the rapid expansion of technology across the globe. One key fact that stood out was more data was created this year than in the previous 5000 years combined. A main cause of this increased demand for technology is the exponentially growing population. The video points out that if you are Ã¢â¬Å"1 in a millionÃ¢â¬ in China, that there are actually 1,300 people that are exactly the same as you. India has more students with higherRead MoreWhat Does It All Mean? By Thomas Nagel1760 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesbook Ã¢â¬Å"What Does it All Mean?Ã¢â¬ by Thomas Nagel is about a diverse thoughts that philosophers encounter to give responses. In every chapter, Nagel talks about different consequences to a variety of problems. The chapters expose well-known theories that philosophers tested for flaws, in order to give answers. Instead of giving us definitive answers to a situation, he allows us to analyze and derive our own theories after considering the problem at hand as well as past outcomes. Rethinking what we haveRead MoreÃ¢â¬Å"All of the Other Ways of Knowing Are Controlled by Language.Ã¢â¬ What Does This Statement Mean and Do You Think It Is a Fair Representation of the Relationship Between Perception, Emotion, Reason and Language?1449 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstatement means that perception, emotion and reason cannot function independently from language. Language plays an integral role in their ability to function. The statement suggests that without language, we would not be able to become aware of something using the senses, we would not be able to experience and express emotion, and we would not be able to reason. To investigate the relationship between language and the other ways of knowing, I will explore the following knowledge issues. What is theRead MoreAll of the Other Ways of Knowing Are Controlled by Language.Ã ¡Ã ¨ What Does This Statement Mean and Do You Think It Is a Fair Representation of the Relationship Between Perception, Emotion, Reason and Language?1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLanguage is such a universal phenomenon in human society. Whenever we write or speak, we use it; whenever we make a promise or ask a question, we use it. In the statement Ã ¡Ã §All of the other ways of knowing are controlled by languageÃ ¡Ã ¨, language is defined as Ã ¡Ã §wordsÃ ¡Ã ¨ and this Ã ¡Ã §controlÃ ¡Ã ¨ can be defined as Ã ¡Ã §dominateÃ ¡Ã ¨. Then this saying seems not so fair to represent the relationship between the four ways of knowing. It is more sensible to say language gives some support or limit to our reasonÃ ¡AperceptionRead MoreGrendel Critical Reading Analysis1144 Wor ds Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe Ram.1. What does Grendels relationship with nature -- the ram, the sky, grass, the doe, the baby bird, owls, and wolves -- reveal about his own personality?2. Quote the various phrases Grendel uses to describe himself. What do they reveal about his self-image and how it was developed?3. What is the significance of the scene wherein Grendel challenges the dark chasms?4. What does Grendel mean when he speaks of playing cat and mouse with the universe? What does it mean to see all life withoutRead MoreQuestions On The Nature Of Interpretation850 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfor allowing misinterpretations to be deemed as valid Ã¢â¬Å"could meanÃ¢â¬ options. However, one finds when reading Ã¢â¬Å"Two Notions of InterpretationÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Intention and Interpretation in LiteratureÃ¢â¬ that these criticisms are effectively countered by two arguments that Levinson presents. Firstly, although the exploratory mode of inquiry can have multiple, if not infinite, cou ld mean answers, it also has could not mean answers. These could not mean interpretations provide insight into the work and allow for interpretationsRead MoreThe Doctrine Of The Me Underpin Aristotle s Account Of Citizen Virtue?899 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTo what extent, and how, does Ã¢â¬Ëthe doctrine of the meanÃ¢â¬â¢ underpin AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s account of citizen virtue? In order to answer the question Ã¢â¬ËTo what extent, and how, does Ã¢â¬Ëthe doctrine of the meanÃ¢â¬â¢ underpin AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s account of citizen virtue?Ã¢â¬â¢ it is first important for me to define Ã¢â¬Ëthe doctrine of the meanÃ¢â¬â¢ which was developed in Book II of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Nicomachean Ethics (II.2.1104a12-26) in the form of a medical analogy. Ã¢â¬Ëthe doctrine of the meanÃ¢â¬â¢ is very often dismissed as being unhelpful andRead MoreJohn Wesley s Three Christian Prudence908 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTake a moment to look into the sentence Ã¢â¬Å"the use of moneyÃ¢â¬ what does that truly mean to someone? Is it how we spend money? How we save money? How we help someone who needs money? What does it mean when asked what does the use of money mean? John Wesley mentions three Christian prudence on the use of money and defines exactly what it means by the use of money. As the social human beings that we all, are we tend to have our eyes on the latest trends and gadgets, and with them having the word Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ Read MoreHayek -the Use of Knowledge in Society1515 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesexists in concentrated or integrated form, but solely as the dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge which all the separate individuals possess (H.3)Ã¢â¬ i. What does Hayek mean by a Ã¢â¬Å"rational economic orderÃ¢â¬ ? a. The economic problem of society is thus not merely a problem of how to allocate given resourcesÃ¢â¬âif given is taken to mean given to a single mind which deliberately solves the problem set by these data. It is rather a problem of how to secure the best
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
All too often in the Western U.S., we hear things like, Fire danger is extremely high or, We are in a tinder box right now. By mid-summer, our surroundings dry-out and it seems conditions become perfect as we segue into a fifth season. Wildfire Season. Wildfires can wreak havoc! Millions of dollars are spent annually, preparing for Wildfires. Money is allocated for education, training, and preparing to fight Wildfires. Money is spent fighting them and protecting structures that might be in the way. Wildfires can be costly, but they also impact us in other ways. Wildfires tax our resources. They impact our structures and influence where we build and how we build. Wildfires affect our health, especially for those who have health concerns. Wildfires impact our weather and overall environment. Wildfires can even be deadly, impacting our communities. Over the past 30 years, Wildfires have become more frequent and have increased in size. Records show that all vegetated continents have ex perienced uncontrolled fires. (Science Magazine) According to the American Geophysical Union, The total area these fires burned increased at a rate of nearly 90,000 acres a year -- an area the size of Las Vegas. Individually, the largest wildfires grew at a rate of 350 acres a year. (Science Daily, 2014) After taking a more in depth look at the ecoregions, it was discovered that The rise in fire activity was the strongest in certain regions of the United States: across the RockyShow MoreRelatedGlobal Health And Climate Change1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHealth Organization (WHO) as a risk to the health of the population and is now classified as one of the greatest health risks of the 21st century (WHO, 2016). Climate change is not just a danger to the environment, but a global threat to our health and it must be recognized as an emergent issue as our climate is becoming altered progressively faster than expected. At this time, emission of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, is warming the earth significantly faster than anticipated. AccordingRead MoreThe Effects of Wildfires1348 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe effects that wildfires have on every worldwide country really has left its mark on the land. As written by world renowned wild fire spokesperson Smokey the Bear, Ã¢â¬Å"Every year, wildfires sweeps through parts of the United States setting wilderness and homes ablaze. On average these raging infernos destroy about four to five million acres of land a year. But in 2012, wildfire burned more than 9.3 million acres, an area about the size of Massachusetts and Connecticut combinedÃ¢â¬ (U.S. Wildfires). DestroyingRead MoreThe Effects Of Air Pollution On The Central Valley Essay1572 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswithout thinking about how they are harming not only the environment but also the health and well being of humans. The cause of air pollution is not only due to natural events like volc anoes and wildfires but is mostly contributed to human activities. These include use of gases, the burning of wood, power generation, driving, the use of household and farming chemicals, and more! (Lad, 2016) Air pollution is interconnected with many health effects like upper respiratory infections and chronic respiratoryRead MoreGlobal Warming In Texas Essay1276 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessucceeded by bouts of rain come out of this season ready for a cool down period, which in Texas will never get too cold. These immensely frustrating seasons of weather have remained somewhat constant throughout the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s history, but a new threat to our safety has been coming faster than we know what to do about it. Heatwaves and hurricanes are nothing new, but in 2015, Austin, TX had 38.5 more days above 100Ã °F since 1970 (Ã¢â¬Å"U.S. Faces Dramatic Rise in Extreme Heat, HumidityÃ¢â¬ ) and the average numberRead MoreThe Climate Change Of The Global Energy Budget935 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesa re taken from the earth or its atmosphere. Most of the adverse effects that are happening in the global energy budget are not because of how much we are taking from the earth, but because of how well we are using those resources. Over the past few years, with the help of new technology, we can track the climate changes and were able to link them to some of the natural disasters that has happened. In a nutshell; we are cooking up our earth. Not only us, but the beings that do not use coal for generatingRead MoreMedia In Media767 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesResearching OneÃ¢â¬â¢s Source Media, a source that we use to obtain our information. Media representation can either be good, bringing movements such as BLM to light, or it can be bad, giving hate groups the attention they want. In the end, all media has the same goal. And that is to distribute information with a bias. This goes for media representation in natural disasters as well. Often times, there are many aspects that are at play during a disaster, that are overlooked. It is up to the consumerRead MoreClimate Change : Global Warming1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmain cause. Ever since the Industrial Revolution humans have been releasing more and more carbon dioxide, which is accumulated in the atmosphere, this leads to the creation of the greenhouse, this disrupts our EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s climate. The greenhouse effect is when the energy from the sun drives the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s weather and climate and heats the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface, in turn the earth will radiate that energy back into earth which will cause a rise in temperature on earth because the gasses retainRead MoreClimate Change Is A Serious Problem For The Planet Earth975 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesis the rise in the temperature of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface mainly credited to the increased levels of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Climate change is a serious problem for the planet earth that have leaders from around the world worried about its effects. The rise of sea level, the melting of the glaciers on Antarctica due to the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhous e gases in the atmosphere is threatening the life of people living in many different big cities around the world. ClimateRead MoreGlobal Warming Is The Increase Of The Earth s Surface Temperature1039 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesissue that according to livescience.com Ã¢â¬Å"is when the gradual heating of earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface, oceans and atmosphere.Ã¢â¬ Many of these things about global warming and that contribute to global warming many people are unaware, for instance, the cause and effect of global warming, how it affects the United States on a national level, and a local level. According to nationalgeographics.com, scientist learned that Ã¢â¬Å"there are several greenhouse gases that are responsible for global warming and we humans giveRead MoreThe Effects Of Global Warming On Our Environment1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGlobal warming is already having significant and harmful effects on our communities, our health, and our climate. Sea level rise is accelerating. The number of large wildfires is growing. Dangerous heat waves are becoming more common. Extreme storm events are increasing in many areas. More severe droughts are occurring in others We must take immediate action to address global warming or these consequences will continue to intensify, grow ever more costly, and increasingly affect the entire planetÃ¢â¬âincluding
Question: Discuss about theMortgage Brokering for Unpleasant Revelations. Answer: It is known that the main objective of risk management is to restrict any unpleasant revelations. The process is in need of comprehensive listing of recognized risks. It is seen that categorising of risk is a particular way to group the risks under a general region which is helpful for a systematic and structured approach in recognising the risks with respect to a specific level of detail. It is necessary to categorize risk as it provides a greater management concentration, enhancing the opportunities of recognising a wider risk ranges and thoughts that can be provoking (McNiff 2016). The categorization of risk provides an approach that is structured for the identification of risk with the help of which all the areas of risks are discovered and analysed without any fail. It is seen that categorizing of risk enhances the efficiency and quality of risk recognition and evaluation of the processes. The risk grouping by highlighting the general root causes is helpful for the enhancing of the efficient responses of the risk. It is even seen that risk categorization aids in the assessment of risk with the help of interviews and meetings with the respondents who have been chosen for their knowledge regarding a relevant and particular risk category (Krueger and Casey 2014). Therefore, it can be said that risk categories provide increased capability for monitoring and controlling the risks that have been recognized and classified within the same root or region. Reference List Krueger, R.A. and Casey, M.A., 2014.Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. Sage publications. McNiff, J., 2016.You and your action research project. Routledge.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Through theories nursing have been renewed and taken to another level. Nursing theorist such as Dorothy Orem, Betty Neuman, Myra Levine and others have made an invaluable impact in nursing. Florence Nightengale who is a much known theorist in the nursing field has made impressive improvement in healthcare and in nursing including the importance of hand hygiene. Betty Neuman was a pioneer in psychiatric health and the neuman system model, this model is to bring stability to individuals who need and/or are receiving nursing care (Meleis 2012). Nursing theories are divided into four categories starting with the first school of thoughts: needs, the second school of thought is interaction, the third school of thought is outcome, and last but not least the fourth school of thought is caring and becoming. Nursing focus is on the need to improve the care of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health and wellbeing. Grand Theory Assignment A nurse uses theories everyday in their job. We will write a custom essay sample on Myra Levine or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page We forget at times how far nursing has come. With the help of the nurses before us we are able to use research and theories to help us in our practice. In this paper a few of many of the theorist will be discussed and compare. Being a nurse is an important and caring career. Dorothea Orem was a part of the first school of thought needs. Ã¢â¬Å"Needs TheoristÃ¢â¬ provided us with a view of human being that was slightly different but close to the view provided by the biomedical model (Meleis 2012). She published her theory in 1959. Her focus was to develop a curriculum for practical nurses. The three theories were called Self-Care, Self-Care Deficit, and Self-Care requisites. The purpose of this theory was to maintain life and to keep the physical and psychic function going, and to maintain the integrity of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s function and development with the framework of conditions that are essential for life (Meleis 2012). Orem thought that the nurse should be able to take care of the patient when they are sick. Today things are more focus on teaching the patient how to interact with the nurse and learn how to maintain a sense of autonomy. Interactions were the next category of theorist. Theorist in this class looked at nursing care as a human relationship. Ida Orlando theory was based off nursing actions and the nurse patient relationship. After doing her research she found out that nurses were driven by the directions they received from physicians, prescriptions, organizational needs, and not the needs of the patient (Meleis 2012). Orem believed if nurses provide best care they will see changes for the best. Myra Levine and others were a part of the outcomes class of theorist. These theorists focused on the outcome of nursing care. Their question was what the focus of nursing was. They thought nursing should have been focused around the human being and the environment. Myra Levine theorist was centered on conservation. Levine, the first images that are conjured are of an integrator who was able to assimilate nursing as a Ã¢â¬Å"humanitarian enterpriseÃ¢â¬ with physics, from which she utilized great conservation laws with physiology and adaptation (Meleis 2012). Levine believed the environment in which one is in helps with the adaptation. She used the internal and external environmental settings. Throughout the challenges and changes in the environments, the body maintains its integrity through some control mechanisms that lead to autoregulation of the internal environment (Meleis 2012). Levine conservation theory was adapted in several settings including the temperature of a newborn baby being put in warmer and compared to a baby put on the chest of his mother. The caring and becoming theories were established in the 1980s. Jean Watson thought the caring for others was the same as caring for self. Watson thought of caring was the way to bring the nurse and patient together. Care theorists include equally the self reflections of patients and nurses as they transform each other into different and more self-examined human beings (Meleis 2012). She believed that the act of caring was centered on the healing of the patient. Each of the theorists has made a great impact in the nursing field. We incorporate some of these theories knowingly and unknowingly in our everyday work. I am a firm believer that autonomy is important in the healing of the patients. If patients are able to care for themselves, than this should be a part of their daily routine to help with the healing process. With that being said I think Jean Watson is most congruent with my personal philosophy of nursing. She too believes in caring for self. She thought the caring for self was to allow human beings to determine and find their own meaning (Meleis 2012). After reading, discussing, and learning about each theorist they all have made nursing what it is today. Although each theorist brought different ideas to nursing they all centered on the care of the patient and the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s family. Today we are able to adapt these theories in all aspect of nursing.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Emily Dickinson Essays - American Christians, Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson is one of the most well known poets of her time. Though her life was outwardly uneventful, what went on inside her house behind closed doors is unbelievable. After her father died she met Reverend Charles Wadsworth. She soon came to regard him as one of her most trusted friends, and she created in his image the ?lover? whom she was never to know except in her imagination. It is also said that it was around 1812 when he was removed to San Fransico that she began her withdrawal from society. During this time she began to write many of her poems. She wrote mainly in private, guarding all of her poems from all but a few select friends. She did not write for fame, but instead as a way of expressing her feelings. In her lifetime only six of her poems were even printed; none of which had her consent. It was not until her death of Brights Disease in May of 1862, that many of her poems were even read (Chelsea House of Library Criticism 2837). Thus proving that the analysis on Emily Dickinson?s poetry is some of the most emotionally felt works of the nineteenth century. Miss Dickinson is often compared with other poets and writers, but ?like Shakespeare, Miss Dickinson is without opinions? (Tate 86). ?Her verses and technical license often seem mysterious and can confuse critics, but after all is said, it is realized that like most poets Miss Dickinson is no more mysterious than a banker. It is said that Miss Dickinson?s life was starved and unfulfilled and yet all pity is misdirected. She lived one of the richest and deepest lives ever on this continent. It was her own conscious choice to deliberately withdraw from society into her upstairs room (Tate 83). She kept to ?only a few select friends and the storm, wind, wild March sky, sunsets, dawns, birds, bees, and butterflies were sufficient companionship for Miss Dickinson? (Loomis 79). She dealt with a lot both physically and psychologically and in the end she still came out on the top. So as Allen Tate best said it ?in her own historical setting Miss Dickinson is nevertheless remarkable and speci al? (82). Thomas Higginson said that ?the main quality of her poems is that of extraordinary grasp and insight, uttered with an uneven vigor, which was all her own? (78). The works and phrases she uses shows that she was unconcerned with the fact that no one else could understand her poetry, but instead, she was satisfied by using mere words in order to fit her own ear (Higginson 78). Miss Dickinson?s poetry was strictly confidential and written without the purpose of publication and merely as a way of expressing her own mind (Bloom 2838). ?Art forms were totally unknown to her, and nature was always viewed not in a cosmic way but in its smallest and most intimate forms? (Whicher 87). Allen Tate describes her biggest influence to be nature itself, and though she could not deal with the problems of society, she had such an attitude toward life that she was able to see into this character of nature more deeply than any other (84). Miss Dickinson?s poetry style contains ?flashes of wholly original and profound insight into nature and life? (Chelsea House of Library Criticism 2841). ?At first impression her tiny lyrics appear to be no more than the jottings of a half-idiotic school-girl instead of grave musings of a full grown, fully educated woman? (Monro 81). Miss Dickinson often writes out of habit allowing her poems to not require a point of view, but instead, they require for some of the deepest understanding, which allows her style to emerge even when she has nothing to say (Tate 86-87). Some consider her works to be the most original of her time, written with an unusual amount of emotion and often referred to as poetry torn up by its roots with rain, dew and earth still clinging to them? (Higginson 78). To others she was considered to be ?intellectually blind, partially dead, and mostly dumb to the art of poetry? (Monro 81). It was best stated by Allen Tate when he wrote,
Sunday, March 1, 2020
History of Electromagnetism ElectromagnetismÃ is an area ofÃ physicsÃ which involves the study of theÃ electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs betweenÃ electrically chargedÃ particles. The electromagnetic force usually producesÃ electromagnetic fields, such asÃ electric fields,Ã magnetic fieldsÃ andÃ light. The electromagnetic force is one of the fourÃ fundamental interactionsÃ (commonly called forces) inÃ nature. The other three fundamental interactions are theÃ strong interaction, theÃ weak interactionÃ andÃ gravitation. Until 1820, the only magnetism known was that of iron magnets and of lodestones, natural magnets of iron-rich ore. It was believed that the inside of the Earth was magnetized in the same fashion, and scientists were greatly puzzled when they found that the direction of the compass needle at any place slowly shifted, decade by decade, suggesting a slow variation of the Earths magnetic field. Edmond Halleys Theories How can an iron magnet produce such changes? Edmond HalleyÃ (of comet fame) ingeniously proposed that the Earth contained a number of spherical shells, one inside the other, each magnetized differently, each slowly rotating in relation to the others. Hans Christian Oersted: Electromagnetism Experiments Hans Christian Oersted was a professor of science at Copenhagen University. In 1820 he arranged in his home a science demonstration to friends and students. He planned to demonstrate the heating of a wire by an electric current, and also to carry out demonstrations of magnetism, for which he provided a compass needle mounted on a wooden stand. While performing his electric demonstration, Oersted noted to his surprise that every time the electric current was switched on, the compass needle moved. He kept quiet and finished the demonstrations, but in the months that followed worked hard trying to make sense out of the new phenomenon. However, Oersted could not explain why. The needle was neither attracted to the wire nor repelled from it. Instead, it tended to stand at right angles. In the end, he published his findings without any explanation. Andre Marie Ampere and Electromagnetism Andre Marie Ampere in France felt that if a current in a wire exerted a magnetic force on a compass needle, two such wires also should interact magnetically. In a series of ingenious experiments, Andre Marie Ampere showed that this interaction was simple and fundamental: parallel (straight) currents attract, anti-parallel currents repel. The force between two long straight parallel currents was inversely proportional to the distance between them and proportional to the intensity of the current flowing in each. There thus existed two kinds of forces associated with electricity- electric and magnetic. In 1864, James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated a subtle connection between the two types of force, unexpectedly involving the velocity of light. From this connection sprang the idea that light was an electric phenomenon, the discovery of radio waves, the theory of relativity and a great deal of present-day physics.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Methods For Engineers (Factors Affecting Project Alliances in Construction Industry ((Australian Construction Industry )))) - Research Proposal Example This was a source of losses to both the construction companies and the general public. It was also a blow to the government since it was not able to complete the planned development projects within the stipulated timeline. These are the factors which contributed to research and proposition of the Industry Alliance design in strategic operation and management of projects (Shayne, 2012: 382). Project alliance is strategic management proposition that works to integrate the objectives various stakeholders in the construction industry. This is a concept in relationship contracting that dates back to the 20th century. This concept entails sharing risks and benefits between those involved in the construction projects. This method was first used in streamlining operations in the UK oil and gas industry. It was then first applied in Australian in the 1990s. Since then, project alliance has been modified to suite various sectors. For instance, project alliance is now widely used as a procurement tool for public infrastructural projects (Mounir, 2011: 263). The initial procurement rules applied pricing tactics in tender allocation. This old process was flawed as it failed to address the key problems related to large cost construction projects. For instance, there were foreseen and undetermined project outcomes. In event of such, some stakeholders were forced to fully absorb the outcomes, a factor that was demoralizing. Project alliancing shifted from these traditional procurement procedures by creating new guidelines for procurement. These new procedures called for complete and thorough evaluation of bidders in objection to price bidding. This helped to ascertain the capabilities of the bidders to meet any unseen occurrences and their corporate social responsibility strategies (Diponio & Dixon, 2013: 167). During its inception, its major aim was to unify all those involved in the Australian construction industry.